Resources

Resources

Here is a collection of the various resources, both internal and external, that we offer you as part of our educational project.
Juste avant les vacances ...

Une proposition d'adaptation du jeu de Qui est-ce autour des protocoles de l'équipe pour conclure l'année :

Presentations of scientific projects, in text, image and sound!

Do research, yes, but how? There are a number of essential steps when you want to carry out a research project. We wanted to highlight and highlight in these sheets the detail of the protocols of each member of the expedition illustrated with the first images of the field. Indeed, during a project of such magnitude, it may be interesting to highlight the scientific approach that is used by each of the student researchers. This approach makes it possible to obtain rigorous and exploitable results for the analyses.

How did the research students go about carrying out their studies?

Research work is planned in advance, it is carefully prepared and structured in major stages. This makes the work rigorous and reproducible by other people. Of course, this work can be adapted over time, for example if there is a technical problem or the manipulation does not work as expected, but the scientists must then explain and justify any change in the protocol.

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Chemistry of microplastics: Olivier's scientific approach

The increasing presence of microplastics in marine ecosystems is a serious threat to biodiversity in these environments. Studying microplastics makes it possible to understand their distribution in the ocean (in this case the Atlantic and Southern oceans) and to know to what extent the Southern Ocean is affected by this pollution .

But how do you measure plastic pollution?

The document with the complete protocol illustrated:

The flowmeter document:

The image bank:

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Sociology of science: Margot's scientific approach

Antarctica is a special region of the world, which is mainly reserved for scientific research . Researchers from all countries live and work on bases for several months to analyze the environment. This region of the world is special because governance is international : the territory does not belong to any country, so several countries must agree on the rules that govern this continent. It is also special because the researchers then work in extreme conditions (cold, snow, isolation, etc.). These two reasons make cooperation essential for research.

 

This starting situation raises questions, because one wonders how it is possible to work in such a particular environmental and geopolitical environment . It was from her first research on the subject that Margot found a problem for her research project:  How do researchers work on a scientific basis in extreme conditions?

The document with the complete protocol illustrated - and the riddles:

The image bank:

(sound files to come)

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Microbiology: Baptiste's scientific approach

In Antarctica, on the surface of the sea, living beings float in the sea water and are moved by the currents. Invisible to the naked eye, they are born, die, multiply and evolve: these are microplankton . These small microbes play a big role: some are able to capture the CO2 present in seawater and use it to grow. These microbes carry out photosynthesis : they use the energy of light to carry out specific chemical reactions and feed in particular on CO2. But these living beings do not only feed on CO2: they also need other nutrients . Nutrients are all the chemical compounds that are used by living things to sustain themselves.

The document with the complete protocol illustrated - and the riddles:

The document with temperature and latitude data:

Additional files:

Nutrients are abundant in the Southern Ocean. However, some nutrients are less present than others. This is the case with trace metals , such as iron, which Clément studies. These metals are called "traces" because only traces are found in seawater, they are present in very small quantities in seawater compared to other nutrients. On the other hand, they are very important for microbes. Indeed, they are among other things in the composition of the machinery used by microbes to recover CO2 and carry out photosynthesis! It has been shown that in Antarctica, these trace metals limit the growth, biodiversity and abundance of microbes.

Marine biogeochemistry: Clément's scientific approach

Ocean water contains dolphins, fish, algae, … but also microscopic organisms , on which Baptiste is working. We also talk about plankton. To live and reproduce, these small organisms need light, to exchange oxygen and CO2 with their environment, nutrients such as nitrates, but also nutrients in very small quantities, for example iron . They can come from continental rocks, penguin colonies, or be brought by sea currents. These elements can be found in water in the form of free ions but most of the time they are bound to molecules, to form complexes . These molecules that can be made by plankton and end up in the water are called ligands and are essential for ecosystems to use iron. The supply of a nutrient (such as iron), when it is limiting, allows an ecosystem to grow and is called fertilization .

The document with the complete protocol illustrated - and the riddles:

The associated image bank and sound file:

The video referred to in the document:

Biology of penguin populations: Lana's scientific approach
Study the distribution of penguin breeding sites in the Antarctic Peninsula

Antarctica is home to several penguin species . There are four of them: emperor penguins, chinstrap penguins, gentoo penguins and Adelie penguins. These animals, like many species in Antarctica, are threatened by climate change and human impact on ecosystems . For example, rising sea levels as a result of climate change could lead to a decrease in available space. Another example, greater snowmelt could accentuate gullying. All these land modifications could have consequences on the occupation of space by the penguins .

Lana wants to study and predict the impact of climate change on the spatial organization of penguin colonies and interspecific relationships.

The document with the complete protocol illustrated:

Sound activity and necessary sound files:

The associated image bank:

Phénomènes météorologiques : la démarche scientifique de Niels
Étudier les phénomènes météorologiques à l’origine d’évènements extrêmes de chaleur en Antarctique
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L’Antarctique est le continent le plus sec au monde. Les précipitations neigeuses et pluvieuses sont rares en Antarctique. Quand il pleut, cela joue un rôle essentiel dans les phénomènes de fonte de la neige de surface du continent. Niels étudie des précipitations causées par un événement météorologique particulier qu’on appelle “rivières atmosphériques”.

 

Les rivières atmosphériques sont des courants aériens (de l’air qui se déplace) qui forment des filaments atmosphériques (des couloirs aériens étroits pleins de vapeur d’eau) transportant de l’air chaud et humide des basses vers les hautes latitudes, c’est-à-dire de l’équateur vers les pôles. Ce phénomène est associé à un épisode de précipitations (de la pluie et/ou de la neige) particulièrement intense ainsi qu’à un apport de chaleur qui entraîne une hausse des températures. Bien qu’elles soient des phénomènes rares en Antarctique, les rivières atmosphériques ont une influence majeure sur le bilan de masse du continent (le bilan de masse, c’est le calcul de la perte ou de gain de glace du continent). En effet, elles génèrent des précipitations extrêmes et sont responsables d’une partie de la fonte de la neige de surface en Antarctique. Comprendre l’origine et le fonctionnement de ces phénomènes météorologiques pourrait permettre une meilleure compréhension des processus de fonte des glaces en Antarctique.

Le document avec le protocole complet illustré :

La banque d'images associée :

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©Margot Legal - Juste 2 degrés

Scientific projects presentation sheets (primary level)

Clement

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Olivier

Margot

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lana

niels

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Baptist

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Bubbles of the interactive map (PDF format)
External educational resources

Here is a panel of resources that are related to the project and made available by our educational partners! In particular, you will find the data of the mission.

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Data on the physico-chemical parameters of the water via the buoys released by the mission and the sensors on board the boat: sharing for scientific use

Inventory of educational activities related to our themes

Page specially dedicated to the Antarctic 2.0 ° C project

Sound landscapes: Sound files captured on the boat

In partnership with ADEME , you will find here a selection of files, booklets and videos related to the themes of Antarctica 2.0°C.

around climate change

Et pour savoir ce qu'il se passe dans les laboratoires depuis le mois de mars :